Overview of the Life of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)
"Indeed God conferred a great favour on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger (Muhammad) from among themselves, reciting unto them His verses (the Qur'an), and purifying them, and instructing them the Book and the Wisdom, while before that they had been in manifest error." (Qur'an, 3:164)
The Prophet Muhammad was born in 570 CE. His father died before he was born and his mother died when he was six years old. He was raised by his grandfather and then taken under the custody of his Uncle Abu Talib. In his youth and adult life, he was famous for his fidelity, integrity and trustworthiness. It wasn't long before he earned the nick name Al-Ameen, the trustworthy. In his teenage years he worked as a shepherd and spent a lot of time in the open desert away from the vices of the society. In his twenties, he worked in trade. He met Khadijah and married her when he was twenty-five upon her proposal. She was a forty-year-old widow.
He led an ethical but ordinary life through his adult life. He never worshiped idols and always believed in one God. He practiced the religion of Abraham, as he knew it. Every year, in his thirties, he started to retreat to a cave at Mt Hira for worship and reflection. At the age of forty (in the year 610 CE) he was appointed as a prophet of God through Archangel Gabriel at Mt Hira. The Prophet Muhammad's mission thereafter is characterised in three distinctive phases.
Meccan period - Muhammad started to convey the message of God's unity to a polytheistic society. The first people to accept Islam were, in general, slaves, poor people & youth. People were struck by Muhammad's perfect character and the eloquence of the Qur'an and the profound realities it articulated. When Islam started to gather noticeable following, Meccan leaders started to persecute and torture Muslims & the Prophet Muhammad. Some Muslims migrated to a neighbouring Christian country - Abyssinia. In the last three years of his struggle in Mecca, all Muslims and the tribe of the Prophet were subjected to an economic embargo. The Meccan period lasted thirteen years and only about 200 people converted.
Migration to Medina - Treaty of Hudaybiyah with Meccans: A breakthrough came when six people from Medina, a city of about 450 km to the north of Mecca, accepted Islam. A year later, seventy-three people became Muslim. Muslims from Medina saw Muhammad as an arbitrator for a city which had been plagued by tribal infighting. All Muslims from Mecca migrated to Medina in 622. Muhammah put together the first 52-article constitution in human history. A new Muslim society and polity was established in Medina. Muhammad signed peace treaties with all major tribes to show that he was a messenger of peace and to protect the fledging Muslim community. Three major battles were fought between Mecca and Medina upon the aggression of Meccans. Muslims won decisively in the first, while they just lost the second. The third was a successful defence of Medina, which was sieged by a major coalition of Meccans and Arabian tribes. Eventually, a ten-year treaty was signed between Mecca and Medina in 628. At that time, Muslims numbered about three thousand.
Treaty of Hudaybiyah - Death of Muhammad: This treaty was a turning point for Muslims. In the peaceful atmosphere, many willingly converted to Islam. When Mecca broke the treaty, the Muslim army conquered Mecca at 630 without any resistance. Mass conversions followed the conquest. After 23 years of struggle, all of the Arabian Peninsula was Muslim. At no point in the process were people forced into the religion. At the Farewell Pilgrimage he gave a speech that could be considered the first Human Rights declaration in history to about 130,000 people. Muhammad passed away on 632 CE at the age of 63.
Character of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)
He was gentle and kind-hearted. He always inclined to be gracious and to overlook the faults of others. Qur'an testifies his gentleness, "By the grace of Allah, you are gentle towards the people; if you had been stern and ill tempered, they would have dispersed from round about you" (3:159). The prophet (pbuh) said about himself "Allah has sent me as an apostle so that I may demonstrate perfection of character, refinement of manners and loftiness of deportment." (Malik, Mawatta; Ahmed, Musnad; Mishkat)By nature, he was gentle and kind hearted, always inclined to be gracious and to overlook the faults of others. Politeness and courtesy, compassion and tenderness, simplicity and humility, sympathy and sincerity were some of the keynotes of his character. In the cause of truth and justice he could be resolute and prompt but more often than not, his acuteness was tempered with generosity. He had charming manners, which won him the affection of his followers and secured their devotion. Though virtual head of Arabia and an apostle of God, he never assumed an air of superiority. Not that he had to conceal any such vein by practice and pretence. He used to say, "I am a Prophet of God but I do not know what will be my end." (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari, Chapter "Al-Janaiz") In one of his sermons, he warned Muslims to be alert and ready for the day of, he said, "O people of Quraish be prepared for the hereafter, I cannot save you from the punishment of Allah; O Bani Abd Manaf, I cannot save you from Allah; O Abbas, son of Abdul Mutalib, I cannot protect you either; O Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, even you I cannot save." (Sahahin) He used to pray, "O Allah! I am but a man. If I hurt any one in any manner, then forgive me and do not punish me." (Ahmed, Musnad, Vol. 6 pg. 103) He always received people with courtesy and showed respect to older people and stated: "To honour an old man is to show respect to Allah." He was always the first to greet another and would not withdraw his hand from a handshake till the other man withdrew his. If one wanted to say something in his ears, he would not turn away till one had finished (Abu Dawud, Tirmizi). He did not like people to get up for him and used to say, "Let him, who likes people to stand up in his honour, he should seek a place in hell." (Abu Dawud, Kitabul Adab, Muhammadi Press, Delhi). He would himself, however, stand up when any dignitary came to him. He had stood up to receive his foster mother, when he saw her years later, and had spread his own sheet to welcome her. His foster brother was given similar treatment. He avoided sitting at a prominent place in a gathering, so much so that people coming in had difficulty in spotting him and had to ask who was the Prophet (pbuh). Quite frequently uncouth bedouins confronted him in their usual gruff and impolite manner but he never took offence. (Abu Dawud Kitabul Atama). He used to visit the poorest of ailing persons and exhorted all Muslims to do likewise (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari, Chapter "Attendance on ailing persons"). He would sit with the humblest of persons saying that righteousness alone was the only criterion of one's superiority over another. He invariably invited people, students, servants or the poorest believers, to partake with him of his scanty meals (Tirmizi, Sunan Tirmizi). Whenever he visited a person he would first greet him and then take his permission to enter the house. He advised the people to follow this etiquette and not to get annoyed if anyone declined to give permission, for it was quite likely the person concerned was busy otherwise and did not mean any disrespect (Ibid). There was no type of household work too low or too undignified for him. Aiysha (ra) has stated, "He always joined in household work and would at times mend his clothes, repair his shoes and sweep the floor. He would milk, tether, and feed his animals and do the household shopping." (Qazi Iyaz: Shifa; Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari, Chapter: Kitabul Adab) He would not hesitate to do the menial work of others, particularly of orphans and widows (Nasi, Darmi). Once when there was no male member in the house of the companion Kab Bin Arat who had gone to the battlefield, he used to go to his house daily and milk his cattle for the inhabitants (Ibn Saad Vol. 6, p 213).
He had absolute trust in God Muhammad (pbuh) preached to the people to trust in God. His whole life was a sublime example of the precept. In the loneliness of Makkah, in the midst of persecution and danger, in adversity and tribulations, and in the thick of enemies in the battles of Uhud and Hunain, complete faith and trust in God appears as the dominant feature in his life. However great the danger that confronted him, he never lost hope and never allowed himself to be unduly agitated. His uncle Abu Talib knew the feelings of the Quraish when the Prophet (pbuh) started his mission. He also knew the lengths to which the Quraish could go, and requested the Prophet (pbuh) to abandon his mission, but the Prophet calmly replied, "Dear uncle, do not go by my loneliness. Truth will not go unsupported for long. The whole of Arabia and beyond will one day espouse its cause." (Ibn Hisham, Sirat-ur-Rasul.) When the attitude of the Quraish became more threatening, Abu Talib again begged his nephew to renounce his mission but the Prophet's (pbuh) replied, "O my uncle, if they placed the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left, to force me to renounce my work, verily I would not desist therefrom until God made manifest His cause, or I perished in the attempt." (Ibid) At a time when there were handful believers, a dejected and oppressed disciple was comforted with the words: "By God, the day is near when this faith will reach its pinnacle and none will have to fear anyone except God." (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari) Just before his migration to Medinah, and even though the enemies had surrounded his house with the intention of killing him, he left the house reciting the Quranic verse: "We have set a barricade before them and a barricade behind them and (thus) have covered them so that they see not" (Qur'an 36:9). Abu Bakr was frightened when pursuers came close to the cavern in which he and Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) were hiding during their flight, but the Prophet (pbuh) heartened him, "Grieve not. God is with us." A guard was kept at the Prophet's house in Madinah because of the danger that surrounded him but he had it withdrawn when the Quranic verse was revealed: "God will protect you from the people" (Qur'an 5:67). A man was caught waiting in ambush to assault the Prophet (pbuh) but he was directed to be released with the words, "Even if this man wanted to kill me, he could not." (Ahmed, Musnad, Vol.3 pg. 471). On a visit to Khaibar, a Jewess had put poison in the Prophet's (pbuh) food. He spat it out after taking a morsel but a disciple who had his fill died the next day. The Jewess was brought before the prophet (pbuh) who questioned her: "Why did you do this?" "To kill you," was her defiant reply. She was told, "God would not have allowed you to do it." (Muslim, Sahih Muslim.)
He was famous for his trustfulness and trustworthiness. His was nicknamed 'the trustworthy' before his prophethood. The Prophet Muhammad was known as a truthful person so much so that even after he proclaimed his prophethood, his enemies could not accuse him of lying. This can be clearly seen by the testimony of the leader of opposition, Abu Sufyan. In the sixth year after migration to Medina, the Prophet started to send letters to the rulers of neighbouring countries. When the letter that was sent to the emperor of Byzantium reached him is Syria, Abu Sufyan was in the Damascus on a trade trip. The emperor summoned Abu Sufyan and the following conversation took place between them. 'Who follows him the most, the rich or the poor?''The poor do.''Has anyone renounced the religion after conversion?''So far, nobody has.''Do his followers increase or decrease?''They are increasing day by day.''Have you ever heard him tell a lie?''No, never.' The testimony of Abu Sufyan, who was the most bitter enemy of Islam at the time, made emperor acknowledge Muhammad's position saying, 'It is inconceivable for one who has never told a lie during his whole life, to invent lies against God!' (Bukhari, Bad'u l-Wahy, 7) One of his companions remembered an interaction with the Prophet before his prophethood. 'Prior to his prophethood, we made an appointment to meet somewhere. It was however three days after the appointed time that I remembered it. When I rushed to the appointment place, I found him waiting for me. He was neither angry nor offended. His reaction was only to say, 'O young man, you have given me some trouble. I have been waiting for you here for three days.' (Abu Dawud, Adab, 82) His nickname before his prophethood was Al-Ameen, meaning 'the trustworthy'. During the hard years of persecution and oppression in Mecca, The leaders of hard opposition of Islam decided to murder him to solve the issue. They have collected a large sum of money as reward for the assassin. However, they could not trust each other for the money and gave it to the trust of Muhammad, the very person whom they were going to murder. This incident shows the high level of trust that even his enemies had with him. He was not only trustworthy towards people, but even warned people against deceiving animals. Once, annoyed at seeing one of his companion's call his horse using deception, he said 'You should give up deceiving animals. You should be trustworthy even in your treatment of them!' (Bukhari, Iman, 24; Muslim, Iman, 107)
As a leader, he showed justice to all believers and non-believers alike. The Prophet (pbuh) asked people to be just and kind. As the supreme judge and arbiter, as the leader of men, as a reformer and apostle, he always had to deal with men and their affairs. He had often to deal with mutually opposed and warring tribes when showing justice to one carried the danger of antagonising the other, and yet he never deviated from the path of justice. In administering justice, he made no distinction between believers and non-believers, friends and foes, high and low. From numerous instances reported in authentic traditions, a few are given below. Sakhar, a chief of a tribe, had helped Muhammad (pbuh) greatly in the siege of Taif, for which he was naturally obliged to him. Soon after, two charges were brought against Sakhar: one by Mughira of illegal confinement of his (Mughira's) aunt and the other by Banu Salim of forcible occupation of his spring by Sakhar. In both cases, he decided against Sakhar and made him undo the wrong. (Abu Dawud, Sunan Dawud, pg.80) Abdullah Bin Sahal, a companion, was deputed to collect rent from Jews of Khaibar. His cousin Mahisa accompanied him but, on reaching Khaibar, they had separated. Abdullah was waylaid and done to death. Mahisa reported this tragedy to the Prophet (pbuh) but as there were no eyewitnesses to identify the guilty, he did not say anything to the Jews and paid the compensation out of the state revenues (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari Nasai). A woman of the Makhzoom family with good connections was found guilty of theft. For the prestige of the Quraish, some prominent people including Asama Bin Zaid interceded to save her from punishment. The Prophet (pbuh) refused to condone the crime and expressed displeasure saying, "Many a community ruined itself in the past as they only punished the poor and ignored the offences of the exalted." (Bukhari, Sahh Bukhari, Chapter "Alhadood"). He continued to say that even if her family members committed any crime, he would not hesitate to apply the law unto them. The Jews, in spite of their hostility to the Prophet (pbuh), were so impressed by his impartiality and sense of justice that they used to bring their cases to him, and he decided them according to Jewish law. (Abu Dawud, Sunan Dawud) Once, in the hustle of a crowd, he accidentally pushed a men with a stick causing a slight abrasion. He was so sorry about this that he told the man that he could have his revenge, but the man said, "O messenger of God, I forgive you." (Abu Dawud, Kitablu Diyat). In his fatal illness, the Prophet (pbuh) proclaimed in a concourse assembled at his house that if he owed anything to anyone the person concerned could claim it; if he had ever hurt anyone's person, honour or property, he could have his price while he was yet in this world. A hush fell on the crowd. One man came forward to claim a few dirhams, which were paid at once. (Ibn Hisham, Sirat-ur-Rasul)
He preached and demonstrated sincere equality among people of any background Muhammad (pbuh) asked people to shun notions of racial, family or any other form of superiority based on mundane things and said that righteousness alone was the criterion of one's superiority over another. It has already been shown how he mixed with everyone on equal terms, how he ate with servants and the poorest, how he refused all privileges and worked like any ordinary labourer contrary to the practice of leaders in his time then and even today. Once the Prophet (pbuh) visited Saad Bin Abadah. While returning Saad sent his son Quais with him. The Prophet (pbuh) asked Quais to mount his camel with him. Quais hesitated out of respect but the Prophet (pbuh) insisted: "Either mount the camel or go back." Quais decided to go back. (Abu Dawud, Kitabul Adab) On another occasion, he was travelling on his camel over hilly terrain with a disciple, Uqba Bin Aamir. After going some distance, he asked Uqba to ride the camel, but Uqba thought this would be showing disrespect to the Prophet (pbuh). But the Prophet (pbuh) insisted and he had to comply. The Prophet (pbuh) himself walked on foot, as he did not want to put too much load on the animal. (Nasai pg. 803) During a halt on a journey, the companions apportioned work among themselves for preparing food. The Prophet (pbuh) took upon himself the task of collecting firewood. His companions pleaded that they would do it and that he need not take the trouble, but he replied, "It is true, but I do not like to attribute any distinction to myself. God does not like the man who considers himself superior to his companions." (Zarqani, Vol 4 pg. 306)
He was kind to animals. He was the first to mention and apply animal rights. The Prophet (pbuh) not only preached to the people to show kindness to each other but also to all living souls. He forbade the practice of cutting tails and manes of horses, of branding animals at any soft spot, and of keeping horses saddled unnecessarily (Muslim, Sahih Muslim). If he saw any animal over-loaded or ill-fed he would pull up the owner and say, "Fear God in your treatment of animals." (Abu Dawud, Kitab Jihad). A companion came to him with the young ones of a bird in his sheet and said that the mother bird had hovered over them all along. He was directed to replace her offspring in the same bush (Mishkat, Abu Dawud). During a journey, somebody picked up some bird's eggs. The bird's painful note and fluttering attracted the attention of the Prophet (pbuh), who asked the man to replace the eggs (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari). As his army marched towards Makkah to conquer it, they passed a female dog with puppies. The Prophet (pbuh) not only gave orders that they should not be disturbed, but posted a man to see that this was done. He stated, "Verily, there is heavenly reward for every act of kindness done to a living animal."
Traditions and Sayings (Hadith)
The Arabic word 'hadith' means a 'spoken word' or a 'saying'. In the Islamic context, it refers to the recorded sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The books in which these are compiled are called 'hadith books'.
There are six popular collections of authentic hadith. These are the Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Nisai, Tirmidhi and Ibn Maja collections. Among these the Bukhari and Muslim collections have a special place because of the tough criteria that they have applied to objectively prove a narrative to be authentic. For example, for Bukhari to accept a narrative as authentic, there had to be evidence that consecutive people on the chain of the narration have lived at the same time period and that they have seen one another.
This was one among the 10 criteria he applied. There are over 9,000 narrations when all six collections are combined, not counting the repetitions. Considering that this selection is done from a pool of more than 100,000 narrations, Muslims have a high level of trust in their authenticity.
In this section, we have provided you with a compilation of 40 different hadith titles translated in English with references of the hadith also noted.
Whosoever pleases to be protected by Allah against the trouble of the Day of Judgment, let him alleviate (the lot of) a needy person or write off the debt thereof.
Müslim, Kasame: 32
There is no man who visits a sick person early in the morning but seventy thousand angels send blessings upon him until evening comes, and he will have a garden in Paradise. If he visits him in the evening, seventy thousand angels send blessings upon him until morning comes, and he will have a garden in Paradise.
Ebu Davud, Cenaiz: 7
Tirmizi, Cenaiz: 2
Allah has made mercy out of one hundred parts. He kept ninety nine for Himself and sent one down to Earth. By means of this remaining one part, all of creation shows mercy to one another, even unto the mare who raises her hoof rather than trample her colt.
Bukhari, Adab: 19
Tirmizi, Da’awat: 107
You see the believers as regards their being merciful among themselves and showing love among themselves and being kind, resembling one body, so that, if any part of the body is not well then the whole body shares the sleeplessness (insomnia) and fever with it.
Buhârî, Edeb: 27
Müslim, Birr: 66
The best home among the Muslims is the one that treats an orphan well. The worst home among Muslims is the one that treats an orphan poorly.
Ibn-i Maja, Adab: 6
He who relieves a hardship of this world for a believer, Allah will relieve a hardship of the Day of Resurrection for him; he who makes it easy for an indebted person, Allah will make it easy for him in this world and the Hereafter; he who covers a Muslim (his mistakes and shortcomings), Allah will cover him in the World and the Hereafter; Allah will be in a person’s need, as long as he is in his brother's need.
Tirmizi, Birr: 19
One who believes in Allah and the Last Day should do good unto guests. One who believes in Allah and the Last Day should do good unto neighbours. One who believes in Allah and the Last Day should say something good, if not keep silent.
Buhari, Edeb: 31
Müslim, İman: 74
Whoever is deprived of kindness, is deprived of all goodness.
Muslim, Birr: 75
One who shows no mercy to our young or who cannot acknowledge the rights of our old is not one of us.
Tirmizi, Birr: 15
If anyone possesses these three characteristics Allah will give him an easy death and bring him into His Paradise: gentleness towards the weak, affection towards parents, and kindness to slaves.
Tirmizi, Kıyamet: 49
A tough person is not one who can fight. A tough person is one who can control himself when he is angry.
Bukhari, Adab: 76
Muslim, Birr: 107
While a man was walking, he grew very thirsty. He saw a well, went over to it, and drank some water. When the finished, he went back to the path and saw a dog panting and eating dirt. The man said to himself, ‘That dog is as desperately thirsty as I was myself only a short time ago.’ So he went back to the well, drew up some more water, and filled his shoe with it. He carried the shoe up to the dogs mouth so the dog can drink it. Allah was appreciative and forgave him.
Bukhari, Adab: 27
Muslim, Salam: 153
Allah Almighty shows His mercy only to the merciful. Be merciful to those on the Earth, so that those on the Heavens will be merciful to you.
Tirmizi, Birr 16
Ebu Davud, Edeb 66
I am sent as a mercy, not as a curse on humanity.
Muslim, Birr: 87
Any young person who is kind to an elderly because of his age, Allah will send him someone who will be kind to him when he becomes old.
Tirmizi, Birr: 75
There is none amongst the Muslims who plants a tree or sows seeds, and then a bird, or a person or an animal eats from it, but is regarded as a charitable gift for him.
Müslim, Musâkat: 12
Of the dinar (money) you spend as a contribution in Allah's path, or to set free a slave, or as a sadaqa (tithe) given to a needy, or to support your family, the one yielding the greatest reward is that which you spent on your family.
Müslim, Zekat: 39
Protect yourselves from the Fire, even if with one half of a date and he who hasn't got even this, (should do so) by (saying) a good, pleasant word.
Buhari, Rikak 49
Müslim, Zekat 67
Volume 8, Book 76, Number 548
If you were not to commit sins, Allah would have swept you out of existence and would have replaced you by other people who would have committed sin, and then asked forgiveness from Allah, and He would have granted them pardon.
Müslim, Tevbe: 9
Tirmizi, Da’avat: 105
Jibril, upon him be peace, continued telling me about how important it is to do good towards one’s neighbours until I thought he was going to tell me that they have a share in one’s inheritence as well.
Bukhari, Adab: 28
Muslim, Birr: 140
A person who has three daughters, or sisters, or two sisters or two daughters and does good to them and cares and provides for them, and assists in their marriage, will enter Paradise.
Abu Davud, Adab: 130
Tirmizi, Birr: 13
A believer is not a fault-finder and is not abusive, obscene, or coarse.
Tirmizî, Birr: 48
He who sees either of his parents during their old age or he sees both of them, but he does not enter Paradise, let him be humbled into dust; let him be humbled into dust; let him be humbled into dust.
Müslim, Birr 9
Tirmizi, Daavat 110
Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, said: ‘My love is obliged for those who love each other in Me, and those who sit with each other in Me, and those who visit each other in Me, and those who give to each other generously in Me.’
Muvatta, Şi'r 16
The finest act of goodness is the kind treatment of a person to the loved ones of his father after his death.
Müslim, Birr 11
Tirmizi, Birr 5
The one who looks after and works for a widow and for a poor person, is like a warrior fighting for Allah's Cause or like a person who fasts during the day and prays all the night.
Buhari, Edeb 25
Tirmizi, Birr 44
Volume 8, Book 73, Number 35
Don't consider anything insignificant out of good things even if it is that you meet your brother with a cheerful countenance.
Müslim, Birr: 144
Administering of justice between two men is also a Sadaqa. And assisting a man to ride upon his beast, or helping him load his luggage upon it, is a Sadaqa; and a good word is a Sadaqa; and every step that you take towards prayer is a Sadaqa, and removing of harmful things from the pathway is a Sadaqa.
Buhari, Sulh 33
Müslim, Zekat 56
Verily, your servants are your supervisors and brothers whom Allah has placed in your hands. Whoever has a brother in his hands, let him feed him from the food that he eats, and let him clothe him with the clothes he wears. Never give them more to do than they are capable of doing. If you ever do so, then help them do it.
Bukhari, Adab: 44
Muslim, Ayman: 40
The most perfect believer in the matter of faith is one who has excellent manners; and the best among you are those who behave best towards their wives.
İbn-i Mâce, Nikâh 50
Dârimî, Nikâh 55
Be kind, for whenever kindness becomes a part of something, it beautifies it; whenever it is taken from something, it leaves it tarnished.
Muslim, Birr: 78
Abu Davud, Adab: 11
None of you will have faith till he wishes for his (Muslim) brother what he likes for himself.
Bukhari - Volume 1, Book 2, Number 12:
Müslim, İman: 71
Fear Allah wherever you are, and follow up a bad deed with a good one and it will wipe it out, and behave well towards people.
Tirmizî, Birr: 55
Do not spread hatred or envy among yourselves and do not conspire. Rather, O Slaves of Allah, be brothers. No Muslim may disassociate himself from his brother for more than three days.
Bukhari, Adab: 57-58
Those who show no mercy to others will have no mercy shown to them by Allah.
Muslim, Fadail: 66
Tirmizi, Birr: 16
Make things simple and do not complicate them. Calm people and do not drive them away.
Bukhari, Ilm: 12
Muslim, Jihad: 6
A believer to another believer is like a wall of bricks supporting each other.
Nesai, Zekat: 66
If someone seeks refuge in Allah, give him refuge. If someone asks in the name of Allah, give him something. If someone does you a favor, repay him. If you cannot find anything with which to repay him, then pray for him so that he knows that you appreciate what he has done for you.
Nasai, Zakah: 72
Abu Davud, Zakah: 38
Both the good and the bad deeds of my ummah were shown to me. I discovered that the removal of hazards from public ways was among their good deeds, and that spitting in their mosques was among their evil deeds.
Muslim, Masajid: 57
Ibn Maja, Adab: 7
Verily, Allah commits your mothers to your charge. And then, Allah commits your mothers to your charge. And then Allah commits your fathers to your charge. And then Allah commits your relatives to your charge.
Adab Al-Mufrad, 60